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Sobering Center Related Research (by publication date)

Smith-Bernardin, S.M. (2021) Changing the Care Environment for Acute Intoxication: Providing Intoxicated Adults with an Alternative to the Emergency Department and Jail. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 82(5), 678–684.

CHCF Report Part 1: Menninger, B. (2021) Sobering Centers Offer Clients Pathway to Stable Lives: A conversation with Shannon Smith-Bernardin, PhD, RN, a national leader in the field. California Health Care Foundation.

CHCF Report Part 2: Smith-Bernardin, S.M. (2021) Issue Brief – Sobering Centers Explained: An Innovative Solution for Care of Acute Intoxication. California Health Care Foundation.

CHCF Report Part 3: Smith-Bernardin, S.M. (2021) Full Report – Sobering Centers Explained: An Environmental Scan in California. California Health Care Foundation.

Marshall, B., McGlynn, E., & King, A. (2021). Sobering centers, emergency medical services, and emergency departments: A review of the literature. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 40, 37-40.

Smith-Bernardin, S., Kennel, M., & Yeh, C. (2019). EMS Can Safely Transport Intoxicated Patients to a Sobering Center as an Alternate Destination. Ann Emerg Med 2019:X:107. doi:

Jarvis, S., Kincaid, L., Weltge, A., Lee, M., & Basinger, S. (2019). Public Intoxication: Sobering Centers as an Alternative to Incarceration, Houston, 2010-2017. Am J Public Health, 109: 597-599. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304907

Scheuter, C., Rochlin, D., Lee, C-M, Mlstein, A., & Kaplan, R. (2019) Cost Impact of sobering centers on national health care spending in the United States. TBM 2019-10(4):998-1003. doi:10.1093/tbm/ibz075

Fischer, M., Plorde, M., Meischke, H. & Husain, S. (2019). Lessons learned from a sobering center pilot for acute alcohol intoxication in South King County, Washington. Journal of Substance Use, 2: 123-127.

Warren, O. (2018). The Long Birth and Short Life of The Recovery Navigation Program. Rhode Island Medical Journal, 101(8): 16-18.

Smith-Bernardin, S., Carrico, A., Max, W. & Chapman, S. (2017). Utilization of a Sobering Center for Acute Alcohol Intoxication. Academic Emergency Medicine, published online May 2017. doi: 10.1111/acem.13219

Warren, O., Smith-Bernardin, S., Jamieson K, Zaller N, Liferidge A. (2016) Identification and Practice Patterns of Sobering Centers in the United States. J Healthc Poor Underserved, 27(3).

Warren, O. (2016). Intoxicated, Homeless, and In Need Of A Place to Land. Health Affairs, 35(11): 2138-2141. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2016.0888

Brewster-Liddle, J., Parsons, W., & Moore, S. M. (2013). Setting up an alcohol treatment centre. Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association, 21(6), 14–18. doi:10.7748/en2013.

Ross, D. W. (2013). Ross: Correction to measures of ethanol concentration. Ann Emerg Med, 61(4), 479. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2013.02.024

Ross, D. W., Schullek, J. R., & Homan, M. B. (2013). EMS Triage and Transport of Intoxicated Individuals to a Detoxification Facility Instead of an Emergency Department. Ann Emerg Med, 61(2), 175–184. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2012.09.004

Holzer, B et al. (2013). Patient Characteristics and Patterns of Intoxication: One time and repeated use of emergency ambulance services. J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 74, 484-489.

Swain, A. H., Weaver, A., Gray, A. J., Bailey, M., & Palmer, S. G. (2013). Ambulance triage and treatment zones at major rugby events in Wellington, New Zealand: a sobering experience. The New Zealand Medical Journal, 126(1372), 12–24.

Smith-Bernardin, S., & Schneidermann, M. (2012). Safe sobering: San Francisco’s approach to chronic public inebriation. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 23(3 Suppl), 265–270. doi:10.1353/hpu.2012.0144

Cornwall, A. H., Zaller, N., Warren, O., Williams, K., Karlsen-Ayala, N., & Zink, B. (2012). A pilot study of emergency medical technicians“ field assessment of intoxicated patients” need for ED care. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 30(7), 1224–1228. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2011.06.004

Flower, K., Post, A., Sussman, J., Tangherlini, N., Mendelson, J., & Pletcher, M. J. (2011). Validation of triage criteria for deciding which apparently inebriated persons require emergency department care. Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ, 28(7), 579–584. doi:10.1136/emj.2009.089763

Greene, J. (2007). Serial inebriate programs: what to do about homeless alcoholics in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med, 49(6), 791–793. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2007.04.011

Dunford, J., Castillo, E. M., Chan, T. C., Vilke, G. M., Jenson, P., & Lindsay, S. P. (2006). Impact of the San Diego Serial Inebriate Program on use of emergency medical resources. Ann Emerg Med, 47(4), 328–336. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2005.11.017

Brady, M., Nicholls, R., Henderson, G., & Byrne, J. (2006). The role of a rural sobering-up centre in managing alcohol-related harm to Aboriginal people in South Australia. Drug & Alcohol Review, 25, 201-206.

Other Recommended

Kertesz, S., Baggett, T., O’Connell, J., Buck, D., & Kushel, M. (2016). Permanent Supportive Housing for Homeless People – Reframing the Debate. N Engl J Med 375: 2115-2117. DOI:10.1056/NEJMp1608326.